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In developmental psychology , investigators identified and analyzed with increasing precision the diverse perceptual, cognitive, and numerical abilities of infants and traced their developmental course, while others focused on life-span development and mental and behavioral changes in the aging process. Developmental research provided clear evidence that humans, rather than entering the world with a mental blank slate, are extensively prepared for all sorts of cognitive and skill development. At the same time, research also has yielded equally impressive evidence for the plasticity of the human brain and the possibilities for change in the course of development.

Late in the 20th century, methods for observing the activity of the living brain were developed that made it possible to explore links between what the brain is doing and psychological phenomena, thus opening a window into the relationship between the mind, brain, and behaviour. The functioning of the brain enables everything one does, feels, and knows. To examine brain activity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to measure the magnetic fields created by the functioning Fine Jewelry 1/6 CT TW Diamond Sterling Silver Ring llqdQyt
in the brain, detecting changes in blood flow. With the aid of computers, this information can be translated into images, which virtually “light up” the amount of activity in different areas of the brain as the person performs mental tasks and experiences different kinds of perceptions, images, thoughts, and emotions. They thus allow a much more precise and detailed analysis of the links between activity in the brain and the mental state a person experiences while responding to different types of stimuli and generating different thoughts and emotions. These can range, for example, from thoughts and images about what one fears and dreads to those directed at what one craves the most. The result of this technology is a virtual revolution for work that uses the biological level of neural activity to address questions that are of core interest for psychologists working in almost all areas of the discipline.

The advances described above led to the development in the early years of the 21st century of a new, highly popular field: social cognitive neuroscience (SCN). This interdisciplinary field asks questions about topics traditionally of interest to social psychologists, such as person perception, attitude change, and emotion regulation. It does so by using methods traditionally employed by cognitive neuroscientists, such as functional brain imaging and neuropsychological patient analysis. By integrating the theories and methods of its parent disciplines , SCN tries to understand the interactions between social behaviour, cognition, and brain mechanisms.

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DeVon Douglass defines the murky term in her own words.

In planning circles, “resilience” often refers to the ability of urban systems to bounce back from environmental shock. On that front, Tulsa, Oklahoma, has its work cut out, ensuring utilities and emergency services have the resources to withstand 130-mph tornadoes whipping through the city.

But to DeVon Douglass, Tulsa’s Chief Resilience Officer, resilience is ultimately about the strength of citizens themselves—a tenacity, she says, that starts withindividuals and spans out to society.

Appointed by Mayor GT Bynum in December 2016, and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Cities network, Douglass brings experience as a lawyer and policy analyst to the task of developing a multi-pronged resilience strategy for the Oklahoma metro, zeroing in equity gaps in Tulsa’s schools, transportation systems, and the economy.

We spoke to Douglass at the Urban Resilience Summit in New York City in July about the work she’s got ahead of her.

What was your definition of resilience coming into this job?

When I first started, I had this idea of youth resilience, because of my previous Angara VintageInspired Sapphire Pendant with Diamond Double Halo L5VOGnBUh
. I was thinking of children who are called dropouts, and the difference between a kid who stays in school and those who don’t. What is inside a child that, despite the fact that they have an abusive father, a distant mother, and murders going on on their block, keeps them from pushing to the end of high school and getting to college?

That’s their internal resilience, and that’s where my first understanding of the word came from. I think it’s transferrable to urban environments, to large communities, to our entire city.

How do you transfer a quality inside the individual to the scope of an entire city?

Well, this is more my conceptual framework. We often talk about systems, but we forget that people make up systems and policies, and the policies reflect us as human beings. I think it’s useful to think about how we as human beings can withstand trauma individually to think about the whole city.

Can you give me a concrete example?

Our schools have suffered a lot recently. They are in a state of crisis as state funding for them has plummeted. Our state funding formula is odd to begin with, to say the least—we’ve had the lowest teacher salary and more cuts to public education than any state in the union since 2008. Across the state, we’re cutting programs, moving to four-day school weeks, taking away stuff these babies need.

I think we need a two-pronged approach with resiliency [in schools]: more funding to raise money for them, but also rethinking schools so we can get people excited about them again. I’d like to make schools places where families can get wraparound public services, and where parents and grandparents can come and get new skills. So [like people themselves], there are external changes and internal factors that come into play. Paris has done work around making schools neighborhood centers, anchors in a community—I have found that very inspiring.

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. IRLE Working Paper No. 149-13.

Duncan, Gregory J., and Richard Murnane. 2011. “Introduction: The American Dream, Then and Now.” In Greg J. Duncan and Richard Murnane (eds.), Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children’s Life Chances . Russell Sage Foundation.

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In addition to electroencephalography, single-cell recording studies, carried out primarily on animals, have been performed since the 1950s. This method involves inserting thin wires (electrodes) into particular brain areas to measure changes in the electrical potential of a single neuron or nearby neurons.

All the electrical changes considered are in practice electrochemical. That is, complex chemical changes underlie the electrical correlates of attention. To take just one instance, the passage of electrical signals from nerve cell to nerve cell is dependent upon a range of neurotransmitter substances. Each of the neural systems already discussed is dependent upon the action of one—or sometimes combinations—of these neurochemicals. One transmitter substance, Angara Two Tier ClawSet Peridot Dangle Earrings with Diamond Halo pESFHv
, is particularly prominent in alerting processes, along with its close relative dopamine . The total amount of another transmitter substance, acetylcholine , in the brain is found to be inversely related to the level of central nervous system activity. For example, if an individual is anesthetized, the electrical activity of the brain is reduced, and the content of acetylcholine is found to be increased. Direct electrical stimulation of the brain, or the convulsant action of certain drugs, tends to decrease brain levels of acetylcholine. This transmitter seems to be involved in a wide range of behaviour and functions. Among those related to attentional and arousal states are stress, awakening from sleep, and exploring behaviour. Certain amino acids, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, appear to play an inhibitory role in the brain and nervous system. Hence they, too, may be involved in reciprocal inhibitory processes accompanying some attentional states.

Limited processing capacity invariably implies a competition for attention. Humans spend their waking hours attending to one thing or another. The term inattention usually implies that, at a given moment, the thing being attended to is either not what it was intended to be or not what adaptively it ought to be. People will often report, “I was present, but I was not taking in what was happening.” On many such occasions, internal preoccupations become the object of current attention at the expense of sensory information from the external world. Alternatively, an internal stimulus, such as a pain or hunger, might capture attention. It is also possible for irrelevant sensory information from the external world to distract individuals from their current focus of attention. When this happens, it could be because the intrusive stimulus has a high priority (such as the ringing of a telephone) or perhaps because the task engaged in is simply uninteresting.

Some individuals are more easily distracted than others, but for everyone distractibility varies with circumstances. When motivation and the level of involvement are high, an individual may totally disregard intense and persistent “outside” signals. Such inputs are either heavily filtered or dealt with only at an automatic level. Even when the competing stimulus is pain from an injury sustained, say, by an athlete in the early stages of a game, it is often scarcely noticed until the game ends and attention is no longer absorbed by the game. Nevertheless, because people’s ability to focus attention varies, some report “difficulties of concentration” and may find themselves so easily distracted that they can scarcely read a book. There are indications that persons who are chronically anxious may be among those whose attention can readily be distracted by quite modest and irrelevant levels of stimuli. This feature has been noted in a number of Angara Solitaire Pear Tanzanite Split Shank Ring With Linear Diamond Accents ttctKC7ZLd
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, and it has been suggested that one cause of these disorders may be a flaw in the mechanisms of attention.

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